As there is forever articles in the news, documentaries made, today we have actioned an article on climate change and our great oceans being affected by this global happening.

Interesting Southern Ocean facts – ANTARCTIC

The Southern Ocean is comprised of the most southern ocean water of the world. It is located in the Southern Hemisphere and is also referred to as the Antarctic Ocean, South Polar Ocean, and the Great Southern Ocean.

No humans live in Antarctica permanently. However, about 1,000 to 5,000 people live through the year at the science stations (another subject) in Antarctica. Only plants and animals that can live in cold live there. The animals include penguins, seals, nematodes (large worms), tardigrades (water-dwelling eight-legged segmented micro-animals), and mites.

This ocean surrounds Antarctica and is the fourth largest of the five ocean of the world. The Southern Ocean’s boundaries are not specifically designated due to much disagreement as to whether it actually exists. Some geographers believe that the waters of the Southern Ocean are really just extensions of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans.

The Southern Ocean encompasses an area of approximately  35 million square kilometers. This Ocean was originally explored because of a belief in a continent that balanced the northern continents, called a Terra Australis.

The Southern Ocean encompasses the South Pole. During winter half of the ocean is covered in icebergs and ice. Some of this ice breaks off of the Antarctic ice sheet and float into the waters of the Southern Ocean.

The worlds largest penguin colony, the Emperor penguins live on the ice.  Wandering Albatross also make the Southern ocean their home.




90% of the World’s Ice is in Antarctica

This continent is the worlds windiest, coldest and driest. It is considered to be a desert because of the lack of moisture to fall on its surface.  Most of the moisture that falls is in the form of snow. The Sahara desert receives more rain than Antarctica.

Summer in Antarctica is from the months of October to February, with winter being from March to September. The seawater under Antarctica reaches only -2 degrees celsius.

The average depth of the Southern Ocean is 13,100 to 16,400 feet. The deepest part of the Southern Ocean is the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench that is 23,737 feet deep.

The South Pole was not reached by man until 1911. Temperatures there can drop even lower than -100 degrees Fahrenheit. The coldest temperature recorded on earth was recorded in Antarctica. It was -128.6 degrees Fahrenheit. It is believed that if the ice sheets in the Southern Ocean were to melt the oceans around the world would rise by as much as 65 meters.

Krill, a tiny shrimp-like creature live in this southern ocean. They are a source of omega-3 oil.

Interesting Arctic Ocean facts

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and the shallowest of the world’s five major oceans. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere and is almost completely surrounded by North America and Eurasia, including the countries of Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada, and the United States.

The Arctic Ocean is almost completely covered by ice in the winter and remains partially covered in ice throughout the entire year. The first person to cross the Arctic Ocean by boat was Fridtjof Nansen in 1896. It wasn’t until 1969 that the first surface crossing of the Arctic Ocean was made, by dog sled.

The Arctic Ocean encompasses an area of 5,427,000 square miles and the  North Pole is located there. The Arctic Ocean is made up of 3 different types of ice, being, Polar, Fast and Pack ice.

Polar ice doesn’t melt and can be as thin as 2 meters in the summer and 50 meters thick in the winter months.





Fast ice is the ice that forms during the winter around the pack ice and land around the Arctic Ocean.





Pack ice is located at the edge of the ice and only freezes completely in winter.






Life at the Arctic

There is a wide variety of marine life living in the Arctic Ocean, including, jellyfish, whales, fish, seals, and walruses. Polar bears live and hunt on the ice of the Arctic Ocean.

There are 4 species of whales in the Arctic including the bowhead, grey narwhal, and the beluga whale.





There are six species of seals living there as well. These include the bearded seal, the ribbon seal, the ringed seal, the spotted seal, the harp seal, and the hooded seal.






When the ice of the Arctic Ocean melts it releases nutrients and organisms into the water which promotes the growth of algae.

The algae feed on zooplankton which serves as food for sea life.

There are more species of fish in the Arctic Ocean than any other sea in the world.

It is believed that 25% of the world’s petroleum is located in the Arctic ocean.

Although the Arctic Ocean is covered by an ice cap, the ice cap is decreasing in size due to global warming and pollution. If it continues to melt it is possible that eventually there will be no more ice in the Arctic Ocean. This may happen by the year 2040.

If the ice disappears, the polar bears living and hunting on the ice of the Arctic Ocean will disappear. They rely on the ice to serve as a platform when they hunt. Without the ice platforms, they will starve. It is becoming obvious that the polar bears are feeling the loss of food in their environment as they are being found wandering into civilization more now than ever before.

You may recall the story of the ‘Titanic‘ a very famous ship on its maiden voyage, in 1917. A ship that was deemed ‘unsinkable’ – it, unfortunately, ran into a glacier that had broken away from the Arctic and was sunk.


Global warming is the current long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.

Global warming also has an enormous impact with respect to melting glaciers and ice sheets. Higher global temperatures (just look at Europes temperatures rising), this is causing the melting of glaciers such as the one in Greenland, which in turn flows into the oceans, adding to the amount of seawater. (checkout the floods happening).  A large rise (in the order of several feet) is occurring on coastlines throughout the world. Higher than usual king tides, hence global sea levels pose many threats.

The ocean has absorbed 90% of the heat, melting the sea ice, the interaction between climate and oceans is altering, the climate is changing which is harming our oceans, and consequently, coastal communities are being disproportionately impacted.

Yet again, climate change, the seasons, the oceans, will continue to be an ongoing conversational subject. We will wait, watch, and hopefully in some small way we can help our planet fight against any more climatical changes.

Do your bit anyway you can. Investigate and take action. There will be more articles to come here at

bye for now. Linda


  1. Such an interesting article Linda and I feel so sad that polar bears may become extinct due to the ice melting
    Sealife and other wildlife are all being affected by climate change and we as humans are the ones killing our beautiful planet day by day and I for one do everything I can but this is global and I can’t see the mega-giant companies helping any time soon as they are filled with greed and this is our biggest enemy
    Thank you

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *